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, a bad start capacitor can let a motor run backwards. We've also found cases of water well pump motors running backwards after a lightning strike.

And at Questions Answers about compressor/condenser unit fans we include a field report of a backwards running condenser unit fan.

Reader Question: What happens to an overcharged cooling system with too much refrigerant?

Could you describe what will happen with an over charged system? - S.F.

An expert inspection of any individual cooling or air conditioning system is likely to discover things that we miss by email discussions. That said, here are some things to consider:

The most serious problem is damage to the A/C compressor. Damage could occur to the compressor piston or to the refrigerant control flow valve (A/C compressors use a reed type valve that seals the compressor high side outlet) - imagine sending a slug of liquid into any reciprocating piston engine or valve that is designed to move a gas - the piston comes up and slams into liquid - and is destroyed.

Effects of too little refrigerant in the system are described in detail separately at THERMOSTATIC EXPANSION VALVES, REFRIGERANT

Reader question:

How can i measure the quantity of refrigerant in the system? is there any instrument that can be use to measure this? said:

How can i measure or ascertain the quantity of refrigerant in the system? is there any instrument that can be use to measure

1. Please kindly assist me on how to ascertain or measure the refrigerant quantity in a system.

2. Is there any instrument for this measurement?

3. Any relationship between an air-conditioners rated current and the refrigerant quantity?

4. Can the Pressure-Temperature chart be used to ascertain refrigerant quantity?

- S.A. 4/1/2014

On your question of does the electrical current determine the amount of refrigerant in the system, No the rated current - if you mean the equipment amps draw - does not determine the proper refrigerant charge quantity, though an overcharge or undercharge that is causing improper equipment operation or even damage might be reflected in the current draw by the compressor.

I don't know a way to precisely measure the liquid volume of what's in an individual HVAC system, as there are technical demands that I will explain here, but you can get an idea of quantity by looking at pressures, temperatures, ambient temperatures around the unit and tables published by the manufacturers.

You'd think we could just calculate the gas volume and liquid volume at any given time and temperature and pressure - theoretically that's right. But because each HVAC system has some unique installation details such as exact lengths of refrigerant piping (depending on where components are installed and how far apart they are located), the actual physical volume of liquids and gases that are in the system are not trivial to compute. / Proenza Schouler asymmetric ruffled dress Top Quality Online Marketable Cheap Price Wiki For Sale Original Clearance Exclusive ufkis

Original Article

E M., E S., F G, F S., J G


bovine viral diarrhea, calves, elisaag., immunohistochemistry, persistent infection


E M., E S., F G, F S., J G. . The Internet Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2009 Volume 8 Number 1.


The objective of this study was to compare two methods of detection of calves persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV): immunohistochemistry (IHC), using ear skin biopsies, and antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using sera. We also aimed to determine the site of immunopositivity. Samples were taken from 80 Holstein calves of up to 3 months of age. For IHC, the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method was used, along with a monoclonal antibody binding to E2 (gp53) protein of BVDV type 1 and 2. For ELISA, a commercial kit was used based on the E (gp44–48)protein of BVDV type 1 and 2. Twelve of the 80 skin biopsies (15%) were IHC positive. Immunopositivity was observed in the epidermis, hair follicles and dermis mononuclear cells being similar to the reported in previous studies. This study confirms that the anti-BVDV monoclonal antibody types 1 and 2, E2 (gp53), were able to detect viral antigens in the skin biopsies, previously fixed in 10% formalin. All sera were negative in ELISA. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the two methods in their capacity to detect PI animals, P (<0.01), indicating that IHC was more sensitive than ELISA, identifying 15% of infected animals.


Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified in the genus within the Flaviviridae family. It is an important pathogen of cattle that can cause reproductive failure, weak born or persistently infected (PI) calves and mucosal disease. BVDV also contributes to the bovine respiratory disease complex (Fray et al., 2000; Liebler-Tenorio et al., 2000; Cornish et al , 2005). BVDV has two genotypes, BVDV 1a 1b and BVDV 2, with each genotype presenting two biotypes, cytopathic (cp) and non-cytopathic (ncp), based on whether or not they cause cellular alterations. Persistent infection results from cows being exposed to the ncp variant of the virus before day 125 of gestation, allowing the fetus to develop immunotolerance to the virus and letting the virus persist after birth (Fulton et al 2000; Brock, 2004; Bolin and Grooms, 2004; Zimmer et al , 2004). PI animals continuously shed great

Ear skin biopsies and sera were taken simultaneously from 80 Holstein calves of up to 3 months old, from herds with a BVDV infection background in the Complejo Agropecuario Industrial de Tizayuca, Sociedad Anonima (CAITSA), located on the Mexico-Pachuca highway in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico.

For skin biopsies, ear notches were used to obtain a tissue fragment of 1.0 × 0.8 × 0.4 cm approximately. Biopsies were fixed in 10% formalin, at pH of 7.4 for 24 h. Tissues were processed by routine histological technique and cut to a thickness of 3 mm to be examined by IHC using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method (Haines et al., 1992). Cut tissue samples were mounted on slides with poly-L-lysine, deparaffined for 1 h at 60ºC and rehydrated in decreasing concentrations of ethanol.

Then, endogenous peroxidase inhibition was carried out using a 3% HO in methanol solution, followed by antigenic retrieval using Target Retrieval Solution (Dako Corporation), according to the manufacturer's instructions, along with heat treatment for 3 min and 30 sec in a microwave oven. Endogenous avidin and biotin were blocked using an Avidin/Biotin Blocking Kit (Zymed Laboratories Inc.), according to the manufacturer's instructions, and the samples were then ready for antibody treatment. A monoclonal primary antibody that binds to E2 (gp53) of BVDV (genotypes 1 and 2) (VMRD, Inc.), was diluted 1:150 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and incubated with the tissue sample for 1 h in a humid chamber (HC) at ambient temperature (AT). After a short rinse with PBS, a biotin conjugated protein G (Rockland Immunochemicals Inc.) was then applied as a secondary antibody, diluted at 1:100 in PBS, and incubated for 1 h in a HC at AT. After washing the slides three times for 5 min in PBS, streptavidin (Zymed Laboratories Inc.) was then applied for a further 30 min incubation in a HC at AT. Finally, the reaction was developed using aminoethylcarbazole (AEC) and the Histostain SP Kit (Zymed Laboratories Inc.), to contrast with Mayer’s hematoxylin. Positive and negative tissue controls were included.

Blood samples were obtained from calves by coccygeus vein puncture and obtained sera were treated with antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the IDEXX HerdChek BVDV Antigen/Serum Plus Test Kit (IDEXX Laboratories Inc.), following the manufacturer's instructions. This assay is based on the detection of protein E (gp44–48) of BVDV genotypes 1 and 2.

Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test of homogeneity and the SAS program.

Twelve of the 80 ear skin biopsies (15%) gave positive IHC results. Immunopositivity was observed as a red color which was distinctive in the cytoplasm of the epidermis and the keratinocytes (Figure 1), hair follicles and mononuclear cells of the dermis (Figures 2 and 3). The 80 sera were negative in the ELISA Ag test. Statistical analysis found that the capacity to detect PI animals by means of ELISA Ag and IHC was significantly different (P <0.01), with 15% of animals diagnosed as positives by IHC.

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Dozens of accident and emergency units are facing closure or being downgraded in a far-reaching overhaul of urgent care which senior doctors warn would have “disastrous” consequences for the NHS.

An analysis of documents drawn up to remodel the health service in England shows that 24 casualty units from Durham to Somerset have been marked for potential closure despite record demand for AEs and serious overcrowding across the country as the NHS goes through its most severe winter crisis since records began. Last month produced the worst performance for AE waits in 13 years.

175 emergency units

NHS bosses who have drawn up the changes as part of efforts to plug a £22bn hole in the health service budget by 2021, insist that concentration of specialist urgent services could save lives and there are no plans for a “significant” reduction in the existing number of 175 emergency units.

But one senior emergency doctor told i that the plans amount to proposal to “make the River Nile run backwards” by planning for a reduction in demand for AE services at a time when Britain has a growing and ageing population.

Research based on 44 regional blueprints by the Johnston Press Investigation Unit reveals that managers are planning to cater for up to 30 per cent fewer AE visits and plans have already been advanced to downgrade units to urgent care centres (UCC) with fewer specialist or consultant-grade staff.

In north east London, the King George Hospital will see its AE become a UCC by 2019. Similar plans are under consideration in Dewsbury, West Yorkshire, and Poole in Dorset. In Staffordshire, health bosses have set a goal of a 30 per cent reduction in AE visits; in Norfolk the figure is 20 per cent.

’15 per cent of all AEs face closure’

A separate study by the Health Service Journal (HSJ) has found that around 15 per cent of the total number of AEs face closure or downgrading with several areas facing “either/or” decisions between neighbouring units.

Under the five-year project to plug the hole in the NHS budget in England, Sustainability and Transformation Plans (STPs) have been drawn up for each of 44 “regions” to remodel services.

A key part of the scheme is to reduce reliance on hospitals, in particular AE units, by expanding primary care into integrated “hubs” staffed by GPs and other carers, bolstered by technology and teams to carry out home visits.

‘Wishful thinking and rhetoric’

But emergency medicine experts argue that the NHS lacks the additional beds and community care resources that would be required to cope with such a change. At a time when 12-hour trolley waits have doubled in the last two years, they accuse managers of basing the future of the health service on “wishful thinking and rhetoric”. According to leaked figures, some 780 people last month waited more than 12 hours for a bed while in AE – compared to 158 in January 2015.

Dr Chris Moulton, vice president of the Royal College of Emergency Medicine (RCEM), told i : “AE units are already desperately short of capacity and hospitals have almost 100 per cent bed occupancy. The suggestion that you can close AE departments and then somehow fewer people will become ill is clearly ridiculous. And anyway, it is not people with minor illnesses but elderly patients with serious conditions who are the ones lying on AE trolleys waiting for beds and then languishing on the wards awaiting social care.

“The problem is that the STPs are trying to design the health service around the fallacy that you can downgrade AE departments and then not provide comparable capacity elsewhere. They are predicting a pattern of falling demand when AE attendances have consistently risen for decades. There is no clear indication as to how this miracle might be achieved.”

He added: “We have a rapidly growing and ageing population and therefore the idea that the health service won’t have to deal with even higher numbers of people requiring emergency care and hospital admission in the future is like hoping that the River Nile will run backwards.”


The professional body said that while it agreed that numerous units were facing change, it was only aware of five AEs at immediate risk. But it warned that a decision to implement 24 closures – equivalent to one in six of the total – was unthinkable.

The HSJ, which said it was aware seven closures or downgrades already in the pipeline, found that 26 hospitals were involved in “head to head” comparisons which could result in one unit being maintained or upgraded to offer full emergency services while the other nearby AE could be closed or offer reduced care. Such decisions are being considered in Shrewsbury and Telford; and Bedford and Milton Keynes.

Some clinicians argue that such moves to concentrate staff in two overstretched AEs into a single unit can be a sensible use of resources and will not necessarily result in a loss of capacity.

Longer journeys

But campaigners and experts warn that widespread closures will result in longer journeys to the nearest emergency units and place an unsustainable burden on remaining services.

Dr Taj Hassan, RCEM president, said that while the STPs had “admirable” ambitions they were in their present form “unworkable”. He said: “If it were to come to pass that one in six emergency departments are downgraded, the effects would be disastrous.

“Closure of any emergency department will naturally require more beds to be found elsewhere – patients do not just disappear when an option for care is removed.”

The National Health Action Party, which campaigns for improvements in health service funding and staffing, said the STPs offered a grim picture which could ultimately see the number of full AEs whittled down 70.

A spokesman said: “According to the STPs, to make the NHS affordable and sustainable, we the public must get used to longer ambulance journeys for emergency care, longer waiting times for treatment. There is a shortage of doctors and nurses. Our AEs no longer have a mid-winter crisis, they have a year-round crisis.”


At the heart of many STPs is a new strategy which will seek to divert many people from attending casualty by referring them to a range of alternative services from walk-in minor injury units (MIUs) to teams dedicated to treating people at home.

The North and Central London STP envisages an Acute Care At Home service under which patients, for an example an elderly person who has suffered a fall judged by paramedics not to require AE treatment, will be referred electronically by ambulance staff to an alternative team who will visit within 12 hours.

Clinicians agree that such schemes are desirable but question whether they will save money or function effectively. In north Essex, managers are considering plans to two out of three minor injury units while in Worcestershire last month four MIUs were closed for three days so staff could be redeployed to support struggling AEs in Worcester and Redditch.

An NHS England spokesperson said: “We do not expect significant numbers of AE changes in the years ahead, and many schemes were in fact decided on many years ago.”

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